India's power sector is one of the most diversified in the world. Sources of power generation range from conventional sources such as coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power to viable non-conventional sources such as wind, solar, and agricultural and domestic waste. Indian power sector is undergoing a significant change that has redefined the industry outlook. Sustained economic growth continues to drive electricity demand in India. The Government of India's focus on attaining 'Power For All' has accelerated capacity addition in the country. At the same time, the competitive intensity is increasing at both the market and supply sides (fuel, logistics, finances, and manpower).
The Overall Generation Capacity stands at 298 GW in March 2016. The category wise installed capacity break-up (approximate) is as follows (GWs):-
• Thermal - 212 GW
• Hydro – 42 GW
• Renewables – 38 GW
• Nuclear – 6 GW
Installed generation capacity has experienced an overall CAGR of ~9% over the period 2006-16.
POWERGRID a Central Transmission Utilities (CTU), is responsible for planning inter-state transmission system (ISTS). Similarly there are State Transmission Utilities (STU) (namely State Transco/ SEBs) responsible for the development of Inter State Transmission System. An extensive network of transmission lines has been developed over the years for evacuating power produced by different electricity generating stations and distributing the same to the consumers. Depending upon the quantum of power and the distance involved, lines of appropriate voltages are laid. The nominal Extra High Voltage lines in vogue are ± 800 kV HVDC & 765kV, 400 kV, 230/220 kV, 110 kV and 66kV AC lines. These have been installed by all the SEBs, and by Generation, Transmission & Distribution utilities including those in Central Sector.
25,721 circuit kilometers (ckm) of transmission lines have been commissioned during 2015-16 (April-February'2016) against 17,780 ckm commissioned during the same period last year, thus having a growth of 44.66%. This is 108.5% of the annual target of 23,712 ckm fixed for 2015-16 and also the highest ever during a single year. Similarly, the overall increase in the transformation capacity has been 43,956 MVA during 2015-16 (April-February'2016) constitutes 86.97 % of the target of 50,542 fixed for 2015-16. POWERGRID has planned a capital investment of more than Rs.1,10,000 crore for development of inter-State transmission system during XII Plan. During the XII plan it has been envisaged to include about 40,000 ckm of transmission line and about 1,00,000 MVA of transformation capacity. As a part of Government of India plan to connect 250,000 Gram Panchayats (GP) in the Country, POWERGRID one of the implementing agencies for National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) project and has been entrusted with the task of development and maintenance of the NOFN network in states, namely Telangana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha
Distribution is the most important link in the entire power sector value chain. As the only interface between utilities and consumers, it is the cash register for the entire sector. Under the Indian Constitution, power is a Concurrent subject and the responsibility for distribution and supply of power to rural and urban consumers rests with the states. Government of India provides assistance to states through various Central Sector / centrally sponsored schemes for improving the distribution sector.
• Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)
• Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)
• National Electricity Fund (NEF)
• Financial Restructuring Scheme